Noun: Singular and Plural

Singular Nouns

Singular nouns name one person, thing, animal, idea, place or event.

Plural Nouns

Plural nouns name two or more persons, things, animals, ideas, places or events. Nouns that have plural forms are count nouns and concrete nouns (and some collective nouns depending on the context).

 

How Can You Change Singular Nouns To Plural Nouns 

Below are basic rules that you can follow.

1. For most nouns, add -s

  • book – books
  • team – teams
  • hand – hands
  • key – keys
  • door – doors

2. For nouns ending in ch, sh, s, ss, x or z, add -es

  • church – churches
  • wish – wishes
  • bus – buses
  • class – classes
  • buzz – buzzes

3. For nouns ending in “y” – if the letter before “y” is a consonant, change “y” to “i” and add -es

  • baby – babies
  • city – cities
  • pony – ponies
  • berry – berries
  • family – families

4. For nouns ending in “y” – if the letter before “y” is a vowel (a, e, i, o, u), add -s

  • day – days
  • key – keys
  • toy – toys
  • guy – guys

5. For nouns ending in “f” or “fe” – change “f” or “fe” to “v” and add -es

  • leaf – leaves
  • knife – knives
  • wife – wives
  • thief – thieves

However, there are some exceptions. For some words ending in “f”, you should only add -s

  • roof – roofs
  • cliff – cliffs
  • chef – chefs

6. For nouns ending in “o” – if the letter before “o” is a consonant, add -es

  • cargo – cargoes
  • potato – potatoes
  • tomato – tomatoes
  • echo – echoes
  • volcano – volcanoes
  • hero – heroes

However, there are some exceptions. For some words ending in “o”, you should only add -s

  • piano – pianos
  • logo – logos
  • photo – photos
  • cello – cellos

7. For nouns ending in “o” – if the letter before “o” is a vowel, add -s

  • patio – patios
  • stereo – stereos

8. Some nouns have the same singular and plural forms. They do not change.

  • deer – deer
  • sheep – sheep
  • fish – fish (but some books allow fishes)
  • series – series

9. Some nouns have irregular plural forms

  • child – children
  • man – men
  • woman – women
  • person – people (/persons)
  • ox – oxen
  • mouse – mice
  • foot – feet
  • goose -geese
  • die – dice
  • tooth – teeth

 

 

 

 

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