Noun: Singular and Plural

Singular Nouns

Singular nouns name one person, thing, animal, idea, place or event.

Plural Nouns

Plural nouns name two or more persons, things, animals, ideas, places or events. Nouns that have plural forms are count nouns and concrete nouns (and some collective nouns depending on the context).


How Can You Change Singular Nouns To Plural Nouns 

Below are basic rules that you can follow.

1. For most nouns, add -s

  • book – books
  • team – teams
  • hand – hands
  • key – keys
  • door – doors

2. For nouns ending in ch, sh, s, ss, x or z, add -es

  • church – churches
  • wish – wishes
  • bus – buses
  • class – classes
  • buzz – buzzes

3. For nouns ending in “y” – if the letter before “y” is a consonant, change “y” to “i” and add -es

  • baby – babies
  • city – cities
  • pony – ponies
  • berry – berries
  • family – families

4. For nouns ending in “y” – if the letter before “y” is a vowel (a, e, i, o, u), add -s

  • day – days
  • key – keys
  • toy – toys
  • guy – guys

5. For nouns ending in “f” or “fe” – change “f” or “fe” to “v” and add -es

  • leaf – leaves
  • knife – knives
  • wife – wives
  • thief – thieves

However, there are some exceptions. For some words ending in “f”, you should only add -s

  • roof – roofs
  • cliff – cliffs
  • chef – chefs

6. For nouns ending in “o” – if the letter before “o” is a consonant, add -es

  • cargo – cargoes
  • potato – potatoes
  • tomato – tomatoes
  • echo – echoes
  • volcano – volcanoes
  • hero – heroes

However, there are some exceptions. For some words ending in “o”, you should only add -s

  • piano – pianos
  • logo – logos
  • photo – photos
  • cello – cellos

7. For nouns ending in “o” – if the letter before “o” is a vowel, add -s

  • patio – patios
  • stereo – stereos

8. Some nouns have the same singular and plural forms. They do not change.

  • deer – deer
  • sheep – sheep
  • fish – fish (but some books allow fishes)
  • series – series

9. Some nouns have irregular plural forms

  • child – children
  • man – men
  • woman – women
  • person – people (/persons)
  • ox – oxen
  • mouse – mice
  • foot – feet
  • goose -geese
  • die – dice
  • tooth – teeth






Word: Back Off

back off (v) -move backwards from a certain position, remove oneself from an obligation


1. The little boy backed off slightly when he saw the angry face of his mother.
2. She backed off when she realized how busy the work will be.
3. Please don’t back off from your responsibilities.

Word: Accustom

accustom (v) – to get used to (something)

accustomed (adj) – usual, in the habit of, commonly used


1. She finally became accustomed to her new apartment after a month.
2.  He had grown accustomed to his work.
3. The teacher’s accustomed kindness made her students love her.

accustom (v) is often followed by “to“… i.e. “accustomed to

Word: Zeal

zeal (n) – a feeling of strong eagerness or enthusiasm

zealous (adj) – having an active interest or enthusiasm

zealously (adv) – in a zealous manner


1. He has a zeal to really study different langauges.

2. She worked zealously to raise money for the completion of the project.

3. Zealous crowds filled the streets when the candidates came for their meeting de avance.

Noun: Possessive

Possessive Nouns

Possessive nouns are nouns that show ownership or possession. A belongs to B.


  • A belongs to B = B‘s A
  • Anna’s baggage is missing.
  • Mrs. Tuazon’s children are very bright.
  • I love Andy’s new car.


There are certain RULES you need to follow when forming and using possessive nouns.

1. For singular nouns, add apostrophe (‘) and “s”

  • Cathy’s cat
  • Anna’s book
  • Building’s parking lot

2. For singular nouns ending in “s” sound, add apostrophe (‘)

  • Texas’ population
  • Mr. Santos’ bag
  • Los Angeles’ streets

3. For plural nouns ending in “s,” add apostrophe (‘)

  • cats’ fur
  • patients’ records
  • lights’ color

4. For irregular plural nouns, add apostrophe (‘) and “s”

  • men’s clothing
  • children’s book
  • people’s rights

5. For hyphenated and compound nouns, put the apostrophe (‘) at the end of the last letter

  • mother-in-law’s bag
  • post office’s employees
  • department head’s task

6. When two or more nouns are joined, put apostrophe (and “s”) at the last joined noun

  • Anna, Josh and Michael’s birthdays
  • Jack and Jill’s pail of water
  • Hansel and Gretel’s story

7. When two or more nouns are joined BUT the ownership is separate, put apostrophe (‘) at the end of each noun

  • Jack’s and Jill’s bags are red and pink
  • Anna’s and Jenny’s sections are A and B